Types of EV

TYPES OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES: HEV, PHEV AND BEV                                                                                          

There are three main types of electric vehicles (EVs), classed by the degree that electricity is used as their energy source in the powertrain. HEVs, or hybrid electric vehicles, PHEVs or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and BEVs, battery electric vehicles.                                                                                              

Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV)                                                                                   

                       EV type diagram                                                                        

Powertrain (HEV, PHEV, and BEV)                                                                                            

The design of the electric powertrains has split into three classes:


HEV       HEV: (classic) Hybrid Electric Vehicles                                                     

The Toyota Prius defined this category (although Toyota now builds a Prius Prime with a PHEV powertrain).                                                      

HEVs are powered by both gasoline and electricity. The electric energy is generated by the car’s own braking system to recharge the battery. This is called ‘regenerative braking’, a process where the electric motor helps to slow the vehicle and uses some of the energy normally converted to heat by the brakes.  HEVs do not obtain electricity from an outside source i.e. do not plug in to obtain an electrical charge.                                                            

HEVs start off using the electric motor, then the gasoline engine cuts in as load or speed rises. The two motors are controlled by an internal computer, which ensures the best economy for the driving conditions.                                                          


                                HEV examples:                                                 

                                Toyota Prius Hybrid, Honda Civic Hybrid, Toyota Camry Hybrid                                                          

PHEV       PHEV: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles                                                    

Think of these as super-charged hybrids.  They have larger batteries than classic hybrid HEVs but they can go only 15-30 miles all-electric before the gasoline engine kicks in.  PHEVs are powered both by gasoline and electricity.                                                          


                               PHEV examples:                                                              

Chevy Volt, Chrysler Pacifica , Ford Fusion Energi, Mercedes C350e, Mercedes S550e, Mercedes GLE550e, Honda Clarity PHEV, BMW 330e, BMW i8, BMW X5 xdrive40e, Hyundai Sonata, Kia Optima, Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid, Porsche Panamera S E-hybrid, Toyota Prius Prime, Volvo XC90 T8

BEV       BEV: Battery Electric Vehicles                                               

BEVs are more frequently called EVs, are fully electric vehicles with rechargeable batteries and no gasoline engine. BEVs store electricity onboard with high-capacity battery packs. Their battery power is used to run the electric motor and all onboard electronics. BEVs do not emit any harmful emissions and hazards caused by traditional gasoline-powered vehicles. BEVs are charged by electricity from an external source as well as regenerated from the vehicles braking system.                                                           


                             BEV examples:                                                 

BMW i3, Chevy Bolt, Nissan LEAF, Jaguar I-Pace, Fiat 500e, Hyundai Ioniq, Hyundai Kona, Kia Soul, Kia Niro, Tesla Model 3, Tesla Model S, Tesla X, Volkswagen e-Golf



Electric Range                                                                                   

Electric range is the distance you can travel on energy stored in the battery and the gas range is how far you could travel if the battery was empty, but the gas tank was full.  The combined range is the sum of those two figures, PHEVs typically have ranges of 230-400 miles before you need to refill the tank, battery or both.                              

If you purchase a BEV, you only need to worry about the electric range because it's the same as the combined range, as you do not have a gasoline component.  BEVs such as the Nissan Leaf and Hyundai Ioniq offer a range between 100-200 miles, mid-range BEVs offer 200-300 miles and premium BEVs offer 300+ miles of range.

 EV range