TYPES OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES: HEV, PHEV AND BEV
There are three main types of electric vehicles (EVs),
classed by the degree that electricity is used as their energy source in the
powertrain. HEVs, or hybrid electric vehicles, PHEVs or plug-in hybrid electric
vehicles, and BEVs, battery electric vehicles.
Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV)
Powertrain (HEV, PHEV, and BEV)
The design of the electric powertrains has split
into three classes:
HEV: (classic) Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Toyota Prius defined this category (although Toyota now builds a Prius Prime
with a PHEV powertrain).
are powered by both gasoline and electricity. The electric energy is generated
by the car’s own braking system to recharge the battery. This is called
‘regenerative braking’, a process where the electric motor helps to slow the
vehicle and uses some of the energy normally converted to heat by the
brakes. HEVs do not obtain electricity
from an outside source i.e. do not plug in to obtain an electrical charge.
start off using the electric motor, then the gasoline engine cuts in as load or
speed rises. The two motors are controlled by an internal computer, which
ensures the best economy for the driving conditions.
Prius Hybrid, Honda Civic Hybrid, Toyota Camry Hybrid
PHEV: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles
of these as super-charged hybrids. They
have larger batteries than classic hybrid HEVs but they can go only 15-30 miles
all-electric before the gasoline engine kicks in. PHEVs are powered both by gasoline and
Pacifica , Ford
Fusion Energi, Mercedes
Clarity PHEV, BMW
X5 xdrive40e, Hyundai
Cayenne S E-Hybrid, Porsche
Panamera S E-hybrid, Toyota
Prius Prime, Volvo
BEV: Battery Electric Vehicles
are more frequently called EVs, are fully electric vehicles with rechargeable
batteries and no gasoline engine. BEVs store electricity onboard with
high-capacity battery packs. Their battery power is used to run the electric
motor and all onboard electronics. BEVs do not emit any harmful emissions and
hazards caused by traditional gasoline-powered vehicles. BEVs are charged by
electricity from an external source as well as regenerated from the vehicles
Model 3, Tesla
Model S, Tesla
Electric range is the distance you can travel on energy
stored in the battery and the gas range is how far you could travel if the
battery was empty, but the gas tank was full.
The combined range is the sum of those two figures, PHEVs typically have
ranges of 230-400 miles before you need to refill the tank, battery or both.
If you purchase a BEV, you only need to worry
about the electric range because it's the same as the combined range, as you do
not have a gasoline component. BEVs such
as the Nissan Leaf and Hyundai Ioniq offer a range between 100-200 miles,
mid-range BEVs offer 200-300 miles and premium BEVs offer 300+ miles of range.